# 1D arterial flow

A 1D model for arterial flows can be derived from the Navier-Stokes equations, in terms of the cross sectional area $A$ and flow rate $Q$, we have ${\partial }_{t}A+{\partial }_{x}Q=0$ ${\partial }_{t}Q+{\partial }_{x}\left({Q}^{2}/A\right)=-A{\partial }_{x}p/\rho -{f}_{r}$ where $p\left(A\right)$ models the wall properties of the arteries, $\rho$ is the blood density and ${f}_{r}$ stands for the wall shear stress. For a simple linear wall relation, $p=KA$ with $K$ a constant, we can write the flux as $F=\left(Q,{Q}^{2}/A+2{e}_{1}A\right)$ and the source term as $S=\left(0,-{e}_{2}Q/A\right)$ using two parameters ${e}_{1}$ and ${e}_{2}$.

Before including the conservation solver, we need to overload the default update function of the predictor-corrector scheme in order to add our source term.

``````#include "grid/cartesian1D.h"
#include "predictor-corrector.h"

static double momentum_source (scalar * current, scalar * updates, double dtmax);

event defaults (i = 0)
update = momentum_source;

#include "conservation.h"``````

## Variables

We define the conserved scalar fields $a$ and $q$ which are passed to the generic solver through the scalars list. We don’t have any conserved vector field.

``````scalar a[], q[];
scalar * scalars = {a,q};
vector * vectors = NULL;``````

The other parameters are specific to the example.

``double e1, e2, ω, Amp;``

## Functions

We define the flux function required by the generic solver.

``````void flux (const double * s, double * f, double e[2])
{
double a = s[0], q = s[1], u = q/a;
f[0] = q;
f[1] = q*q/a + e1*a*a;
// min/max eigenvalues
double c = sqrt(2.*e1*a);
e[0] = u - c; // min
e[1] = u + c; // max
}``````

We need to add the source term of the momentum equation. We define a function which, given the current states, fills the updates with the source terms for each conserved quantity.

``````static double momentum_source (scalar * current, scalar * updates, double dtmax)
{``````

We first compute the updates from the system of conservation laws.

``  double dt = update_conservation (current, updates, dtmax);``

We recover the current fields and their variations from the lists…

``  scalar a = current[0], q = current[1], dq = updates[1];``

We add the source term for q.

``````  foreach()
dq[] += - e2*q[]/a[];

return dt;
}``````

## Boundary conditions

We impose a sinusoidal flux $Q\left(t\right)$ at the left of the domain.

``q[left] = dirichlet(Amp*sin(2.*π*ω*t));``

## Parameters

For small amplitudes $Amp=0.01$ at the input boundary condition the system has analytical solutions for $e1, in this case the spatial envelope of the flux rate behaves like $Q=Amp×{e}^{-e2/2x}$ [Wang at al., 2013].

``````int main() {
init_grid (400);
e1 = 0.5 ;
e2 = 0.1 ;
ω = 1.;
Amp = 0.01 ;
run();
}``````

## Initial conditions

The initial conditions are $A=1$ and $Q=0$.

``````event init (i = 0) {
θ = 1.3; // tune limiting from the default minmod
foreach()
a[] = 1.;
}``````

## Outputs

We print to standard error the spatial profile of the flow rate $Q$.

``````event printdata (t += 0.1; t <= 1.) {
foreach()
fprintf (stderr, "%g %.6f \n", x, q[]);
fprintf (stderr, "\n\n");
}``````

We get the following comparison between the numerical solution and the linear theory for the flow rate $Q$.