1D arterial flow

A 1D model for arterial flows can be derived from the Navier-Stokes equations, in terms of the cross sectional area A and flow rate Q, we have tA+xQ=0 tQ+x(Q2/A)=Axp/ρfr where p(A) models the wall properties of the arteries, ρ is the blood density and fr stands for the wall shear stress. For a simple linear wall relation, p=KA with K a constant, we can write the flux as F=(Q,Q2/A+2e1A) and the source term as S=(0,e2Q/A) using two parameters e1 and e2.

Before including the conservation solver, we need to overload the default update function of the predictor-corrector scheme in order to add our source term.

#include "grid/cartesian1D.h"
#include "predictor-corrector.h"

static double momentum_source (scalar * current, scalar * updates, double dtmax);

event defaults (i = 0)
  update = momentum_source;

#include "conservation.h"


We define the conserved scalar fields a and q which are passed to the generic solver through the scalars list. We don’t have any conserved vector field.

scalar a[], q[];
scalar * scalars = {a,q};
vector * vectors = NULL;

The other parameters are specific to the example.

double e1, e2, ω, Amp;


We define the flux function required by the generic solver.

void flux (const double * s, double * f, double e[2])
  double a = s[0], q = s[1], u = q/a;
  f[0] = q;
  f[1] = q*q/a + e1*a*a;
  // min/max eigenvalues
  double c = sqrt(2.*e1*a);
  e[0] = u - c; // min
  e[1] = u + c; // max

We need to add the source term of the momentum equation. We define a function which, given the current states, fills the updates with the source terms for each conserved quantity.

static double momentum_source (scalar * current, scalar * updates, double dtmax)

We first compute the updates from the system of conservation laws.

  double dt = update_conservation (current, updates, dtmax);

We recover the current fields and their variations from the lists…

  scalar a = current[0], q = current[1], dq = updates[1];

We add the source term for q.

    dq[] += - e2*q[]/a[];

  return dt;

Boundary conditions

We impose a sinusoidal flux Q(t) at the left of the domain.

q[left] = dirichlet(Amp*sin(2.*pi*omega*t));


For small amplitudes Amp=0.01 at the input boundary condition the system has analytical solutions for e1<e2, in this case the spatial envelope of the flux rate behaves like Q=Amp×ee2/2x [Wang at al., 2013].

int main() {
  init_grid (400);
  e1 = 0.5 ;
  e2 = 0.1 ;
  ω = 1.;
  Amp = 0.01 ;

Initial conditions

The initial conditions are A=1 and Q=0.

event init (i = 0) {
  θ = 1.3; // tune limiting from the default minmod
    a[] = 1.;


We print to standard error the spatial profile of the flow rate Q.

event printdata (t += 0.1; t <= 1.) {
    fprintf (stderr, "%g %.6f \n", x, q[]);
  fprintf (stderr, "\n\n");

We get the following comparison between the numerical solution and the linear theory for the flow rate Q.