# src/radial.h

# Radial/cylindrical coordinates

This implements the radial coordinate mapping illustrated below.

It works in 1D, 2D and 3D. The 3D version corresponds to cylindrical coordinates since the $z$-coordinate is unchanged.

The only parameter is $d\theta $, the total angle of the sector.

`double dtheta = π/3.;`

For convenience we add definitions for the radial and angular coordinates $(r,\theta )$.

```
map {
double r = x, θ = y*dtheta/L0;
NOT_UNUSED(r); NOT_UNUSED(θ);
}
event metric (i = 0) {
```

We initialise the scale factors, taking care to first allocate the fields if they are still constant.

```
if (is_constant(cm)) {
scalar * l = list_copy (all);
cm = new scalar;
free (all);
all = list_concat ({cm}, l);
free (l);
}
if (is_constant(fm.x)) {
scalar * l = list_copy (all);
fm = new face vector;
free (all);
all = list_concat ((scalar *){fm}, l);
free (l);
}
```

The area (in 2D) of a mapped element is the area of an annulus defined by the two radii $r-\Delta /2$ and $r+\Delta /2$, divided by the total number of sectors $N=2\pi L0/(d\theta \Delta )$, this gives $$\frac{\pi [(r+\Delta /2{)}^{2}-(r-\Delta /2{)}^{2}]}{2\pi L0/(d\theta \Delta )}=\frac{2\pi r\Delta}{2\pi L0/(d\theta \Delta )}=\frac{rd\theta}{L0}{\Delta}^{2}$$ By definition, the (area) metric factor `cm`

is the mapped area divided by the unmapped area ${\Delta}^{2}$.

```
scalar cmv = cm;
foreach()
cmv[] = r*dtheta/L0;
```

It is important to set proper boundary conditions, in particular when refining the grid.

```
cm[left] = dirichlet (r*dtheta/L0);
cm[right] = dirichlet (r*dtheta/L0);
```

The (length) metric factor `fm`

is the ratio of the mapped length of a face to its unmapped length $\Delta $. In the present case, it is unity for all dimensions except for the $x$ coordinates for which it is the ratio of the arclength by the unmapped length $\Delta $. We also set a small minimal value to avoid division by zero, in the case of a vanishing inner radius.

```
face vector fmv = fm;
foreach_face()
fmv.x[] = 1.;
foreach_face(x)
fmv.x[] = max(r*dtheta/L0, 1e-20);
boundary ({cm, fm});
}
```