# Simulation of Unsteady Flow around a Cylinder

Coded by Paul Valcke and Luis Bernardos. This codes shows the simulation of a flow around a cylinder. We solved this problem using the Unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. Velocity-pressure non-linear coupling is solved by means of a Newton method, based on the Jacobian matrix. In this code we use a first-order march in time for integrating through time.

There exist no analytical solution of this flow, so a theoretical validation cannot be performed.

# Preliminary thoughts about the flow

The flow around a cylinder is a classic problem in fluid dynamics. There exist no analytical solution for this unsteady flow. We intend to simulate the famous Von Karman street, the vortex shedding downstream. However, we did not succeed in simulating this instability, and therefore we encourage future contributions.

Indeed, phyisically the vorticity areas around the cylinder becomes unstable with time. At first, a symmetrical quasi-steady flow configuration is stablished, and then it will become unstable and asymmetrical. With this code, for some reason that the authors didn’t manage to figure out, when the instabilities occur and they are amplified, the calculation diverges, or the vortex are dissipated. We will talk about in more detail in the results section.

Note that the Unsteady Navier-Stokes equations of this code has been implemented using the following form:

\displaystyle \partial_tu_i + u_j\partial_ju_i = -\partial_ip + \frac{1}{Re}\partial^2_{jj}u_i

clear all; figure('OuterPosition',[0, 0, 800, 600]); format compact


# Parameters

Here the user inputs all the user-specified parameters for calculations. It can be stated to make Steady or Unsteady calculations, to plot Velocity field (with vectors) or the Vorticity field.

%%%% parameters
Re=1000; % Starting reynolds number
ReMax = 6000; % Stablished reynolds number
ReAccelTime = 2; % Reynolds stablishing time
Uinlet=1;
Rmax = 1; % Radius of the domain (outter side)
Rmin = 0.01; % Radius of the domain (inner side, the cylinder)
Ntheta=181; % number of grid nodes in theta
Nrho=120; %number of grid nodes in rho
pts=3; % number of points in finite difference stencils
alpha=1; % Under-relaxation
maxIter = 200;
resSTOP = 1e-5;
PlCase = 'Vorticity'; % Vorticity or Velocity
dt = 0.1; % Time step
tmax = 6; % Time of the simulation

Lx = 2*pi*Rmax;
Ly = Rmax-Rmin;

% differentiation
[d.x,d.xx,d.wx,x]=dif1D('fd',0,1,Ntheta,pts);
[d.y,d.yy,d.wy,y]=dif1D('fd',0,1,Nrho,pts);
[D,l,~,~,Z,I,NN]=dif2D(d,x,y);

# Mesh

We use a cylindrical mesh. Therefore, we have to build it by means of a \rho and a \theta vector. The spacing of these two vectors will let us to shrink the grid where detailed calculations are required (and typically high gradients exist). This is specially true at the boundary layer of the cylinder, so that is why whe use the function Lspacing, that imposes a trigonometric discretization in a given direction controlled by a lambda parameter. Then, we make use of map2D function for transforming the rectangular-created differentiation matrices into the new deformed grid domain. Mesh

% Meshing
Tspac =  linspace(0,2*pi,Ntheta); % Spacing of theta, linear
Rhospac = Lspacing(Nrho,2,Rmax-Rmin); % Spacing of Rho, trigonometric
[Theta, Rho] = meshgrid(Tspac,Rmin + Rhospac);
[X, Y] = pol2cart(Theta,Rho); % We transfor polar to cartesian coordinates
D=map2D(X,Y,D); % We transform the differentiation matrices
D.lap=D.yy+D.xx; % Laplacian calculation

% We look for the corresponding indices of velocity_inlet and outflow:
velocity_inlet = l.top(round(0.25*numel(l.top)):round(0.75*numel(l.top)));
outflow = l.top(l.top<min(velocity_inlet) | l.top>max(velocity_inlet) );
% % Plots mesh
mesh(X,Y,X*0,'EdgeColor','k','DisplayName','Mesh');hold on; view(2); axis equal; grid off;
xlabel('x'); ylabel('y'); title(sprintf('Cylinder mesh. N_{\\theta}=%d  N_{\\rho}=%d',Ntheta,Nrho));
plot(X(l.bot),Y(l.bot),'ob','DisplayName','Cylinder-wall');
plot(X(velocity_inlet),Y(velocity_inlet),'og','DisplayName','Velocity-inlet')
plot(X(outflow),Y(outflow),'+m','DisplayName','Outflow')
hold off
legend('show','location','NorthWest')
set(gcf,'paperpositionmode','auto')
print('-dpng','-r80','Cylinder_Mesh.png');


# Boundary conditions

The boundary conditions imposed for this problem are the following:

• Velocity Inlet: Dirichlet conditions, horizontal speed equal to Uinlet.
• Outflow: Neumann condition on velocity.
• Cylinder Wall: Dirichlet condition, no-slip (zero velocity).

Furthermore, we included a link condition at the overlapping mesh boundary. This link condition is implemented in the Constraint C matrix, by means of a continuity condition (using identity matrix) and continuity of the first spacial derivatives, or tangency, using the differentiation matrices.

%%%% preparing boundary conditions
u=(1:NN)'; v=u+NN; p=v+NN;
II=speye(3*NN);

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
DD=blkdiag(D.y,D.y,D.y);
% Boundary Conditions
dir=[velocity_inlet;l.bot]; % where to put Dirichlet on u and v
lnk1=[u(l.left); v(l.left); p(l.left)]; % Link indices
lnk2=[u(l.right); v(l.right); p(l.right)]; % Overlapping link indices
p0loc=1;
loc=[u(dir); v(dir); p(p0loc); ... % Dirichlet
u(outflow);v(outflow)]; % Neumann

C=[II([u(dir);v(dir);p(p0loc)],:);% Dirichlet on u,v at walls
II(lnk1,:)-II(lnk2,:); % Continuity of the value
DD(lnk1,:)-DD(lnk2,:); % Continuity of the normal derivative
D.x(outflow,:), Z(outflow,:), Z(outflow,:); % Neumann on u2 at outflow
Z(outflow,:), D.x(outflow,:), Z(outflow,:);  % Neumann on v2 at outflow
];


We chose an initial guess that statisfies the boundary conditions, this is good for Newton, and it makes it also very easy to impose the nonhomogeneous boundary conditions in the lop.

% initial guess
%U=Uinlet*(Rho-Rmin)/(Rmax-Rmin); % Alternatively, use this initial
%condition. Not really required.
U = zeros(NN,1);
U(velocity_inlet)=Uinlet; % Here we impose the velocity inlet speed.
V=0*X;
P=0*X;
q0=[U(:);V(:);P(:)];


# Forced Perturbation

In an attempt to destabilize the trailing vortices, we implemented a simple finite perturbation through modifying the imposed vertical velocity at the velocity inlet boundary. Even making this, we did not manage to sufficiently destabilize the vortices and simulate the Von Karman street. The user and future contributor may find useful using this perturbation.

time_pert_start = 6; % Starting time of the perturbation
time_pert_end = 6.5; % End time of the perturbation.
Vpert = V;
Vpert(velocity_inlet)=0; % Modify this parameter for perturbating the velocity field from time_pert_start to time_pert_end
q0pert=[U(:);Vpert(:);P(:)];

switch CalcMode
% MARCHE EN TEMPS
% Newton iterations
ReDer = dt*(ReMax-Re)/ReAccelTime;
disp('Newton loop')
q=q0;
qNm1 = q0;
qM=q;
quit=0;count=0;time = 0;
for t = 0:dt:tmax
while ~quit

% the present solution and its derivatives
UM = qNm1(u); % Solution du pas précédant
VM = qNm1(v);
PM = qNm1(p);
U=alpha.*q(u) + (1-alpha).*qM(u);
V=alpha.*q(v) + (1-alpha).*qM(v);
P=alpha.*q(p) + (1-alpha).*qM(p);
Ux=D.x*U; Uy=D.y*U;
Vx=D.x*V; Vy=D.y*V;
Px=D.x*P; Py=D.y*P;


This is now the heart of the code: the expression of the nonlinear fonction that should become zero, and just after, the expression of its Jacobian, then the boundary conditions.

    % nonlinear function
f=[UM-U-(U.*Ux+V.*Uy+Px-(D.lap*U)/Re).*dt; ...
VM-V-(U.*Vx+V.*Vy+Py-(D.lap*V)/Re).*dt; ...
D.x*U+D.y*V];

% Jacobian
A=[-spd(ones(NN,1))+dt.*(-(spd(Ux)+spd(U)*D.x + spd(V)*D.y )+(D.lap)/Re), -spd(Uy).*dt, (-D.x).*dt; ...
-spd(Vx).*dt,  -spd(ones(NN,1))+dt.*(-(spd(Vy) + spd(V)*D.y + spd(U)*D.x )+(D.lap)/Re), (-D.y).*dt; ...
D.x, D.y, Z];

% Boundary conditions, including the perturbation condition
if time >= time_pert_start && time <= time_pert_end
f(loc)=C*(q-q0pert);
else
f(loc)=C*(q-q0);
end
A(loc,:)=C;

% convergence test
res=norm(f);
disp([num2str(count) '  ' num2str(res)]);
if (count>maxIter) || (res>1e5); NoConv=1;disp('no convergence');break;else NoConv=0; end
if res<resSTOP; quit=1; disp('converged'); end

% Newton step
qM = q;
q=qM-A\f;% alternatively replace A\f by gmres(A,f,1000,1e-7);
count=count+1;

end
count = 0;
qNm1 = q;
quit = 0;

fprintf('time=%g\n',time);
% Plot
switch PlCase
case 'Vorticity'
Vorticity = -D.y*U + D.x*V;
surf(X,Y,reshape(Vorticity,Nrho,Ntheta)); view(2); shading interp; axis equal; colorbar; grid off;
caxis([-50 50]);
xlow=-2*Rmin; ylow=-4*Rmin; xhigh=8*Rmin; yhigh=+4*Rmin; % Figure view point
case 'Velocity'
Module = sqrt((U.^2+V.^2));
surf(X,Y,reshape(Module,Nrho,Ntheta),'facealpha',0.8); view(2); shading interp; axis equal; colorbar;
hold on
uu=reshape(U,Nrho,Ntheta); vv=reshape(V,Nrho,Ntheta);
quiver(X(1:5:end,1:5:end),Y(1:5:end,1:5:end),uu(1:5:end,1:5:end),vv(1:5:end,1:5:end)); hold off
xlow=-2*Rmin; ylow=-4*Rmin; xhigh=8*Rmin; yhigh=+4*Rmin; % Figure view point
end
xlim(gca, [xlow xhigh])
ylim(gca, [ylow yhigh])
axis(gca, [xlow xhigh ylow yhigh])
if NoConv, PlCase='***NO CONVERGENCE***'; end
xlabel('x'); ylabel('y'); title(sprintf('Cylinder. %s field. t=%0.2fs ; Reynolds %0.0f',PlCase,time,Re));
drawnow

set(gcf,'paperpositionmode','auto')
print('-dpng','-r80',sprintf('Cylinder_t%0.1fs.png',time));
time =time+dt;
if Re < ReMax, Re = Re + ReDer; end
if NoConv, break;end
end

% Creates animated gif
FirstFrame = true;
gifname = sprintf('Cylinder_Re%d.gif',Re);
for t = 0:dt:tmax
[imind,cm] = rgb2ind(im,256);
if FirstFrame
imwrite(imind,cm,gifname,'gif','Loopcount',inf);
FirstFrame = false;
else
imwrite(imind,cm,gifname,'gif','WriteMode','append',...
'DelayTime',dt);
end
end
% Newton iterations
disp('Newton loop')
q=q0;
qM=q;
quit=0;count=0;
while ~quit

% the present solution and its derivatives
U=alpha.*q(u) + (1-alpha).*qM(u);
V=alpha.*q(v) + (1-alpha).*qM(v);
P=alpha.*q(p) + (1-alpha).*qM(p);
Ux=D.x*U; Uy=D.y*U;
Vx=D.x*V; Vy=D.y*V;
Px=D.x*P; Py=D.y*P;


This is now the heart of the code: the expression of the nonlinear fonction that should become zero, and just after, the expression of its Jacobian, then the boundary conditions.

    % nonlinear function
f=[-(U.*Ux+V.*Uy)+(D.lap*U)/Re-Px; ...
-(U.*Vx+V.*Vy)+(D.lap*V)/Re-Py; ...
D.x*U+D.y*V];

% Jacobian
A=[-( spd(Ux) + spd(U)*D.x + spd(V)*D.y )+(D.lap)/Re, -spd(Uy), -D.x; ...
-spd(Vx),  -(spd(Vy) + spd(V)*D.y + spd(U)*D.x )+(D.lap)/Re, -D.y; ...
D.x, D.y, Z];

% Boundary conditions
f(loc)=C*(q-q0);
A(loc,:)=C;

% plotting
Module = sqrt((U.^2+V.^2));
surf(X,Y,reshape(Module,Nrho,Ntheta)); view(2); shading interp; axis equal
%     quiver3(X,Y,ones(Ny,Nx).*max(Module),reshape(U,Ny,Nx),reshape(V,Ny,Nx),...
%         zeros(Ny,Nx),'k','AutoScale','off');
xlabel('x'); ylabel('y'); title('Cylinder Steady'); grid off;hold off
colorbar;
drawnow

% convergence test
res=norm(f);
disp([num2str(count) '  ' num2str(res)]);
if (count>maxIter) || (res>1e5); disp('no convergence');break; end
if res<resSTOP; quit=1; disp('converged'); continue; end

% Newton step
qM = q;
q=qM-A\f;
count=count+1;
end
otherwise
warning('Mode "%s" not recognized',CalcMode);
end


# Results

As stated previously, we did not manage to simalate the Von Karman Street. Here we present how the vorticity field is stablished and respects the symmetry: Symmetric vorticity stablishing

We tested many different Reynolds number and conditions. For example, the following image shows a higher Reynolds number simulation (note: the label says Reynolds 6000, but the geometry of the cylinder was different, so the meaning of the Reynolds is not the same). Unstable vortices

The previous image shows how the vortices are destabilized and are eventually dissipated. We think that the outflow boundary was too close, and perhaps using a bigger mesh would be enough for simulating the Von Karman street. Future contributors may try using a bigger mesh.

In the sake of variety, and in an attempt to make understand the future contributor the problems that we encountered, we include also an image of a simulation that diverges. We can clearly see that when the vortices start to destibilize and potentially to “dettach”, the code explodes. We did not find the reason. Diverging simulation

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