# Morton versus Cartesian indexing

On this page we test the socalled “locality” of a morton-style interator versus a regular Cartesian iterator. We test it for a ${32}^{3}$ grid and assume that our results are somehow scaleable to other grids. We focus the analysis on the distance in iteration-sequence space between cells that are neighbors in the 3D-grid space

``````#include "grid/octree.h"

scalar m[],xyz[];
int main(){
int maxlevel = 5;
int cells = pow(2,3*maxlevel);
double cartarr[cells];
double mortarr[cells];
int i=0;
while (i<cells){
cartarr[i]=0.;
mortarr[i]=0.;
i++;
}``````

The grid is initialized and we use the `foreach()` loop for the Morton-style iteration and store the indixes in field s.

``````  init_grid(1<<maxlevel);
int a=1;
foreach()
m[]=a++;
a=1;
int o = 1+BGHOSTS;``````

For the Cartesian-style indexing, we define a $x-y-z$-sequence iterator. The result is stored in the xyz field.

``````  for (int k= o; k<N+o; k++){
for (int j= o; j<N+o; j++){
for (int i= o; i<N+o; i++){
Point point;
point.i=i; point.j=j; point.k=k; point.level=maxlevel;
xyz[]=a++;
}
}
}
double distcart=0;
double distmort=0;``````

Below we perform our analysis. Foreach cell we log the distance to three of its face-sharing neighbors. The boundary-ghost-cell values are set using the default scalar-field boundary condtion. This way, the index distance to ghost cells is 0 and does not ‘pollute’ the results.

``````  boundary(all);
foreach(){
double cart=xyz[];
double mort=m[];
foreach_dimension(){
double cd = fabs(cart-xyz[1,0,0]);
double md = fabs(mort-m[1,0,0]);
distcart += cd;
distmort += md;``````

Remarkably(?), the total ‘index distance’ to neighbors is exactly equal for both approaches ($\approx O\left({N}^{5}\right)$ for a ${N}^{3}$ grid). Therefore we check the underlying distribution of the indexing distances.

``````      cartarr[(int)(cd+0.5)]++;
mortarr[(int)(md+0.5)]++;
}
}
FILE * fp = fopen("hist","w");
i=1;
while (i<cells){
fprintf(fp,"%d\t%g\t%g\n",i,cartarr[i],mortarr[i]);
i++;
}``````

Below, the histrogram of the index distances between neighbors is shown:

We can see that the Cartesian style indexing has resulted in three-values for its index distances. ($1,N$ and ${N}^{2}$). The Morton-style curve has index distance values for each power of two. Compared to the Cartesian-style index distances; there are more neigbors with an index distance smaller than $N$, but the Morton-style indexing pays with more cells at an index distance larger than ${N}^{2}$. Remember, the total weighted ‘area’ between each histrogram is equal!

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